Muscle Milk

20 Jun 19
24/7 Wall St.

Trying to figure out which foods and drinks are unhealthy can be overwhelming and exhausting. Information overload can make it difficult to understand what makes a specific treat good or bad for you. But certain ingredients can make any food unhealthy. They include sugar, too much sodium, trans fats, and some oils. These ingredients are […]

19 Jun 19
Life of Lauren

We are in the full swing of summer, which tends to mean that everyone is striving to be in the best shape they can for the beach or the cabin. Because of this, and what we see in the media, it can be hard to be patient to see results, which leads to quick fixes […]

19 Jun 19
Seán Ferrick

The switch from one mood to the next comes as rapidly as a spasm in a muscle, pulling you in a direction you hadn’t prepared for, unable to fight it. The wrong side of the bed is the only side when the other side is blocked and barricaded, warm bodies creating a wall of mass […]

19 Jun 19
“Mummy can do it”

Morning started with a shower 🙂 nice to be clean again🤣🤣 Despite it only being g 2 nights it seemed strange being back at super Nama and popsies house. Slightly concerned that it now looks bare without us in it!! Don’t want it to look like they have been burgled when they come home 🤣🤣🤷‍♀️😊😱😱 […]

19 Jun 19
Welcome

Milk does a body good. But when it comes to dairy farmers’ bottom line, it could be doing better. New Jersey’s dairy farmers add more than $22 million to the state’s economy. According to state Agriculture Secretary Doug Fisher, federally controlled milk prices are making it tough for dairy farmers to make a profit. “Dairy farmers […]

19 Jun 19
Q-VAC life

Have you’ll ever think of ‘body clock’? Understanding our body clock is main for a better lifestyle. Well, body clock is defined as a person’s biological clock; maybe a natural process of transitions. For example, feeling hungry, puberty, sleeping patterns are something that happen naturally at the right moment. Learning our internal body clock is […]

19 Jun 19
Dance Safari

Whether you want to rock a fine-looking outfit when you’re out dancing in a club or you’re a professional ballroom dance competitor, the food you eat will play a big part in how you look, feel, and perform. Above all, the best food for ballroom dancers will build wellness over illness and ease over dis-ease. […]

19 Jun 19
CoffeePenPaper

Well, NO! Even before you guys start to think I was dieting, STOP. I didn’t diet or starve, neither did I ever hit the gym (I initially did after my baby turned 8 months old, and 3 days later I quit the gym).  I was always a healthy chick, because everything I ate almost had GHEE ( Indian […]

19 Jun 19
Cooking on Canvas

It’s been a minute. How goes it? Some hikes are gentle, others strenuous, while others are basically rock climbing. You know it is the latter when its not your legs, but your arms and upper back muscles and sides that ache like a nonsense the next day. However I truly enjoy mild rock climbing to […]

19 Jun 19
Harvard Gazette
The first time a young Vayu Maini Rekdal manipulated microbes, he made a decent sourdough bread, even if he gave little thought to the crucial chemical reactions involved. More crucial, he would later learn, is the role microbes play in helping our bodies break down foods so they can absorb the nutrients. Since we cannot digest certain substances — all-important fiber, for example — microbes step up to perform chemistry no human can. “But this kind of microbial metabolism can also be detrimental,” said Maini Rekdal, a Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Ph.D. student in the lab of Professor Emily Balskus, and first author on their new study published June 14 in Science. According to Maini Rekdal, gut microbes can chew up medications with often hazardous side effects. “Maybe the drug is not going to reach its target in the body; maybe it’s going to be toxic all of a sudden; maybe it’s going to be less helpful,” he said. In their study, Balskus, Maini Rekdal, and their collaborators at the University of California, San Francisco, describe one of the first concrete examples of how the microbiome can interfere with a drug’s intended path through the body. Focusing on levodopa (L-dopa), the primary treatment for Parkinson’s disease, they identified which bacteria out of the trillions of species is responsible for degrading the drug, and how to stop it. Parkinson’s disease globally affects more than 1 percent of those age 60 and above. The neurological disorder attacks nerve cells in the brain that produce dopamine, without which the body can suffer tremors, muscle rigidity, and problems with balance and coordination. The cause of the disease is unknown. The primary treatment for Parkinson’s symptoms is L-dopa, a drug taken orally that delivers dopamine to the brain. To do so, it must first cross the blood-brain barrier. For most patients, only about 1 to 5 percent of the drug actually reaches the brain. [gz_photo_layout_article_width image=”279039″ caption=”The%20two%20species%20of%20gut%20bacteria%20involved%20in%20metabolizing%20the%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20drug%2C%20L-dopa.%20First%2C%20E.%20faecalis%20eats%20L-dopa%20and%20spits%20out%20dopamine.%20Then%2C%20E.%20lenta%20eats%20dopamine%20and%20spits%20out%20meta-tyramine.%20The%20first%20step%20contributes%20to%20drug%20loss%20but%20both%20could%20contribute%20to%20L-dopa%E2%80%99s%20sometimes%20severe%20side%20effects.%0A” credit=”Source%3A%20%22Discovery%20and%20inhibition%20of%20an%20interspecies%20gut%20bacterial%20pathway%20for%20Levodopa%20metabolism%22″ /] This number — and the drug’s efficacy — varies widely from patient to patient. Since the introduction of L-dopa in the late 1960s, researchers have known that the body’s enzymes (tools that perform necessary chemistry) can break down L-dopa in the gut, preventing the drug from reaching the brain. The pharmaceutical industry introduced aneffective supplemental drug, carbidopa, to block unwanted L-dopa metabolism. “Even so,” Maini Rekdal said, “there’s a lot of metabolism that’s unexplained, and it’s very variable between people.” That sets the stage for another problem: Not only is the drug less effective for some patients, but when L-dopa is transformed into dopamine outside the brain, the compound can cause side effects, including severe gastrointestinal distress and cardiac arrhythmias. If less of the drug reaches the brain, patients are often given more to manage their symptoms, potentially worsening the side effects. Maini Rekdal suspected microbes might be behind the L-dopa disappearance. Previous research showed that antibiotics improve a patient’s response to L-dopa, but scientists could only speculate that bacteria might be to blame. Still, no one identified which bacterial species might be culpable or how and why they eat the drug. So the Balskus team launched an investigation. The unusual chemistry — L-dopa to dopamine — was their first clue. Few bacterial enzymes can perform this conversion. But a good number bind to tyrosine — an amino acid similar to L-dopa. And one, from a food microbe often found in milk and pickles (Lactobacillus brevis), can accept both tyrosine and L-dopa. [gz_photo_layout_two_asymmetric left=”279027″ right=”279028″ caption=”Vayu%20Maini%20Rekdal%2C%20shown%20handling%20microbes%20in%20an%20oxygen-free%20environment%2C%20works%20with%20Emily%20Balskus%20in%20the%20lab.” /] Using the Human Microbiome Project as a reference, Maini Rekdal and his team hunted through bacterial DNA to identify which gut microbes had genes to encode a similar enzyme. Several fit their criteria, but only one strain, Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), ate all the L-dopa every time. With this discovery, the team provided the first strong evidence connecting E. faecalis and the bacteria’s enzyme (PLP-dependent tyrosine decarboxylase, or TyrDC) to L-dopa metabolism. Yet a human enzyme can and does convert L-dopa to dopamine in the gut, the same reaction carbidopa is designed to stop. Then why, the team wondered, does the E. faecalis enzyme escape carbidopa’s reach? Even though the human and bacterial enzymes perform the exact same chemical reaction, the bacterial one looks just a little different. Maini Rekdal speculated that carbidopa may not be able to penetrate the microbial cells, or the slight structural variance could prevent the drug from interacting with the bacterial enzyme. If true, other host-targeted treatments may be just as ineffective as carbidopa against similar microbial machinations. But the cause may not matter. Balskus and her team already discovered a molecule capable of inhibiting the bacterial enzyme. “The molecule turns off this unwanted bacterial metabolism without killing the bacteria; it’s just targeting a nonessential enzyme,” Maini Rekdal said. This and similar compounds could provide a starting place for the development of new drugs to improve L-dopa therapy for Parkinson’s patients. The team might have stopped there. Instead, they unraveled a second step in the microbial metabolism of L-dopa. After E. faecalis converts the drug into dopamine, a second organism converts dopamine into another compound, meta-tyramine. To find the second organism, Maini Rekdal experimented with a fecal sample. He subjected its diverse microbial community to a Darwinian game, feeding dopamine to hordes of microbes to see which prospered. Eggerthella lenta won. These bacteria eat dopamine and make meta-tyramine as a byproduct, a challenging reaction even for chemists. “There’s no way to do it on the bench top,” Maini Rekdal said, “and previously no enzymes were known that did this exact reaction.” Knowing the microbial meals end with meta-tyramine, Maini Rekdal decided to test whether he could predict how a fecal sample’s bacteria would interact with L-dopa. [gz_explore id=”238788,264548,274499″ alignment=”right” /] He could. Based on meta-tyramine levels, Maini Rekdal determined how much of the drug a sample would consume. With this in mind, doctors could individualize Parkinson’s treatment based on a patient’s specific microbes and their byproducts. Meta-tyramine may also contribute to L-dopa’s noxious side effects, but until now, there was no reason to investigate the compound’s role. “All of this suggests that gut microbes may contribute to the dramatic variability that is observed in side effects and efficacy between different patients taking L-dopa,” said Balskus. Her work could help decrease this variability and allow the drug to work as intended, without microbial interference.
19 Jun 19
Zen Bag Lady

It’s early afternoon, and I write this propped up in my bed, listening to it rain…again…with my little dog Zuzu curled up at my side. Next to her is my tablet, in case I want to read or watch a show; my latest journal, which has some angry entries of late; my phone; and the […]

19 Jun 19
A rare kind of normal

This month has been tough. As well as Imogens usual challenges I’ve had tonsillitis again and my furbaby Stitch Cat has been very unwell, and has needed hand fed at regular intervals so please forgive me for not writing as much as I usually would in Rare Chromosome Disorder Awareness Week. But today is Warrior […]

19 Jun 19
Orso Carnico

The human body keeps the calcium concentration in the blood constant, similarly to an aircraft’s autopilot keeping the plane at a constant altitude. What they have in common is that both the body and the autopilot employ sophisticated integral feedback control mechanisms. Marine engineers were the first to build such an integral feedback control system, […]

19 Jun 19
An interracial cuckold

  This is a very beautiful description of a white couple’s submission to black superiority. Normally people consider submission to be something humiliating or a sign of weakness or they believe that you are giving up your freedom, but paradoxically it is very liberating for a white couple to submit to black superiority. This meanstthat […]